The well-known wetlands of Iran are very important globally. They mostly used by numerous migratory birds winter to and from Indian sub-continent or wintering areas of Africa. There are over 20 species of geese and ducks in the marshes of the south Caspian lowlands in Iran’s northwest which are particularly significant, while the mul flats of the Persian Gulf coast are important for shore birds, gulls and terns. Also in the southern waters of Iran the variety of marine mammals are observed.
It worth to know that giraffes and wild sheep grazed once in the fields around so called Maragheh in Azerbaijan . it is unusual to say a footage of least dinosaur are found in north of Kerman , there are evidence of the diversity of paleontological possessed by Iran.
However by emersion of the ice age some two million years ago which can be said lasted to about thousand years ago caused disappearance most of the wildlife.
By this Geo-climatic transition the entire northern hemisphere as far south even of Iran were deeply affected and along the way numerous plant and animal species were decimated the sweeping phyloid forests, the last remnants of which are the jungles of Hirkan in northern part of Iran are the victims included in this list.
It is really a pity that these jungles not only have not preserved as nature reserves because of not just local but global importance instead they have fallen prey to a far deadlier predator than the ice age , namely human.
Due to appropriate range of temperatures in Iran the various wildlife and environment remarkably developed.
All the soaring peaks of Alborz and Zagros in the north and west of country together with lesser ranges in east , centre and south make different climate zone each suit existence of various plants and animals including 8200 species of plant , 500 of bird , 160 of mammal and about 1000 species of reptile and aquatic organism a full idea of our present discussion are mentioned in as bellow :
500 species of bird :
Mostly all 500 species of birds are living in the trees and shrubs . Mountains and waters of Iran . those related to duck family have migratory life while species of the partridges family are native or semi-migratory 350 of these species reproduce inside Iran while 250 of them such as the green woodpecker , greater spotted woodpecker , wall – crawler are actually originated in geographic zones and come from Asia and temperate European regions , and the garden woodpecker and black headed titmouse originating from the warm shrub of the Mediterranean.
Specied of these birds are from the steppes of Asia or far the plains of Africa. In the south of Iran more than 30 species of Indian origin are observed such as white-black , mocking bird , Indian heron , lesser sea dove , yellow heron which originated in both India and Africa.
160 species of mammals :
The variety of fauna and flora in Iran alone are more than entire of Europe. Iran situated in a continent which is four times of it’s size with diversity of climate and at the crossroads of Arabia , Turkistan , Caucasus and India together. It’s inherent potential has made Iran a land so that you can find mammals at 2 grams which is lighter than a coin to a species of whale that comes in at 130 tons. The flexibility of mammalian life make it possible to have carnivores and herbivores. Flyers and swimmers , canines and felines , rams and Goats all covering whole part of Iran from jungles of the north to the soaring peaks of Alborz and Zagros and the flatlands at the center of Iran .
Some of these species such as Iranian yellow deer the zebra and squirrel are found exclusively in Iran but other species such as the Ibex and brown bear are found in the forests of Europe , Asia and north America.
Other species such as Buck and Lynx are migrated from Europe to Iranian plateau . where is also hosting a several of settlers from the east beyond the Oxus have come the Black-Tailed Fox and the Parka , whilst the striped squirrel , black bear lesser mongoose and Indian Gerbil have migrated from India and are found in Baluchistan in the south – east of Iran and the fruit eating bat and a species of porcupine have traveled far from African landmass to attend natures banquet in plateau of Iran .
Humankind carelessness cruelty slaughtered many species , destroyed habitats and forests razed to the ground when the ponds and rivers that settled so many of these species are not drained of all their water . they are so polluted as to be unable to support any ecosystem worthy of the name .
The air , too has not been spared the suicidal irony of this ecological carnage escapes it’s perpetrators .
It stand to reason when such tragedies are in the offing , crocodile tears are shed in industrial quantities .
The variability of Iran’s nature is encoded in seven magic numbers according to recent book of MR. Afshin Bakhtiar entitled “ The Nature of Iran “ which listed bellow and explained thereafter. 1000 – 6000 – 8200 – 160 – 500 – 1000 and 129 – 999 – 998 .
With respect to their importance :
During the summer and winter there would be different temperature between different points ,for instance in Hamadan the temperature drops by at least 2 °C just 200 meters of Alvand mount . The same in Abarkouh , the temperature rises more than a few degrees in the desert a distance of just a few kilometers.
Suppose for every 100 meters elevation the temperature drops by about 1°C . It is not easy to answer what constitutes the correct temperature. How low is the temperature at 4000 meters , or on top of mount Damavand (5671 M) for that matter ? Dr . Paniz Kardavani believes that the warmest point on the planet is not to be found as claimed elsewhere in Arizona , Arabia or the deserts of Libya whilst in the Kavir – Q-lut in Iran , where the temperatures in exess of 600°C have been reported accordingly . Assuming the temperature a top the highest peaks in Iran reaches at least 400 °C below zero and that in the Kavir-e-Lut reaches 60°C , the temperature difference thus obtained equals 100°C a figure of much significance.