Languages in Iran

Persian (Farsi) is the official and common language of Iran and to be used as the language of government and literature. Historically the languages of Iran  varied upon passing the years (Old – Middle- New)

Now Persian language is used in all schools through out the country and all the people use it fluently.

There are numerous of dialects spoken among ethnic groups including Turkish – Baluch – Armenian and Arabic.


The language is spoken with different dialects depends on location .  Azari is the most common ethnic spoken in the northwest provinces of Iran including Azarbaijan – Ardebil – Zanjan  and parts of Kurdistan – Hamedan – Qazvin.

This language is also called Turki which spoken by many people in Tehran in view of  their migration to this city .

Kurdish (known as kurdi) :

This language in western Asia and in the west provinces of  Iran. Beside that this  Indo-European language is used in Turkey , Syria , Turkmenistan ,  Armanestan and Iraq .

This language forms three dialectic groups known as northern Kurdish (Kumani), central Kurdish (sorani) and southern Kurdish (Pehlevani).

The northern Kurdish (Kumani) is the largest Athnetic  groups spoken by about 20 million Kurdish and the Sorani by groups about 7 million Kurds in Iran and Iraq Kurdistan province.

The Kurdish language is said to be teached in Iran in a formal and academic way and various attempts is taken to improve and teach Kurdish language all over Iran.


This language is commonly spoken as a second language By  Baluch people in northwest of Iran . Baluch are the ethnic inhabitants of Sistan and Baluchestan provinces who are predominantly Sunni religious with mostly belonging to Hanafi but there are also a few number of Shia in Baluchestan. The population of Baluch in Iran estimated 1.5 million but the majority of this ethnic reside in Pakistan and some are in southern part of Afghanistan . They are also indwell in some part of Persian gulf states .such as United Arab Emirates and in Kuwait.

Arabic :

This language is the local dialect of Arabic spoken in Khusestan province but the varieties of Arabic taught across Iran to students in secondary schools regardless of their ethnic or linguistic background . This language entered into Iran simultaneously with Islam 1400 years ago and after invasion of Arab in the 7th century many Arab tribes settled in different parts of Iran.

Armenian :

It is a language of the Persian Armenian citizen of Iran who are mostly concentrated in Tehran and the city of Jolfa in Isfahan province.

This tribe was very active in the modernization of Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries but after revolution many of them  emigrated to north America and western Europe where the Armenian communities had been previously settled and the population remain in the country estimated 70.000 to 200.000 .

Today the Armenian are the largest minority in Iran with Christian faith. no need to say that due to their migration to Iran centuries at the time of Persian empire they have adopted culturally with their compatriots in very noticeable way while keeping simultaneously their Christen faith and Armenian identity .

English : 

Is one of the most popular and second official language of Iran which taught in all the high schools national wide.

Nowadays most younger generation have relatively high ability to speak English and there are lots of English signs around major cities and some info in English in main museums and sites.

Other languages :

The smaller amounts of other languages speak in parts of Iran including Georgian – Syriac – Minabi – Lari – Lor – Qashqai – Turkmen – Tati – Talysh – Circassian – Assyrian.